Corona viruses are a family of viruses that cause respiratory and intestinal illnesses in humans and animals. They usually cause mild colds in people but the emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in China in 2002–2003 and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) on the Arabian Peninsula in 2012 show they can also cause severe disease.

Reports suggested that the new virus (2019-nCoV) is more contagious than the one causing SARS but less likely to cause severe symptoms. There is much we need to learn about the new coronavirus (COVID-19). The World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 to be a pandemic, which is not an indication that the virus has become deadlier, rather, it’s an acknowledgement of the geographical spread of the disease.

 The COVID-19 has posed frequent challenges during its course ranging from virus isolation, detection, prevention to vaccine development. 


Human-to-human transmission occurs through common routes such as direct transmission, contact transmission and airborne transmissions through aerosols and during medical procedures. Cough, sneeze, droplet inhalation, contact with oral, nasal and eye mucous membranes are the common modes of spread. Viral shedding occurs from respiratory tract, saliva, faeces and urine resulting in other sources of virus spread. The viral load is higher and of longer duration in patients with severe COVID-19. Spread of COVID-19 from patients to health workers, flight attendants who were in close contact with the infected patients are also reported.


Some people who have COVID-19 infection have felt only a little sick. Others got very sick. Some symptoms are:

  • Fever Cough
  • Shortness of breath 
  • Chills
  • Headache
  • Muscle pain
  • Congestion or runny nose
  • Sore throat
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of taste or smell

Other less common symptoms include gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.

Older people, and those with underlying medical problems are at a higher risk of developing serious illness. The symptoms of COVID-19 are similar to those of the flu (influenza) or the common cold, which are a lot more prevalent. This is why testing is required to confirm that someone has COVID-19.


For patients with suspected infection, the following diagnosis techniques are utilised: performing real-time fluorescence (RT-PCR) to detect the positive nucleic acid of SARS-CoV-2 in sputum, throat swabs, and secretions of the lower respiratory tract samples.


It’s important to remember that key preventive measures for all the Coronavirus-linked diseases are the same – frequent hand-washing and respiratory hygiene (covering your cough or sneeze with a flexed elbow or tissue, then disposing of the tissue in a closed bin).

The COVID-19 virus may survive on surfaces for several hours, but simple disinfectants can kill it.

To avoid the risk of transmission, you should:

  • Wash your hands frequently using an alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.
  • Cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
  • Avoid close contact with anyone who has a fever and cough.
  • Seek medical care early if they have fever, cough and difficulty breathing.
  • Share previous travel history with their healthcare provider.

Stay aware of the latest information on the COVID-19 outbreak, available on the WHO website and through your national and local public health authority. Most people who become infected experience mild illness and recover, but it can be more severe for others. Take care of your health and protect others.


The COVID-19 vaccines have reached billions of people worldwide, the evidence is overwhelming that no matter which one you take, the vaccines offer life-saving protection against a disease that has killed millions. The pandemic is far from over, and they are our best bet of staying safe.


How Effective Are they

COVID-19 vaccines are effective at protecting you from COVID-19, especially severe illness and death. COVID-19 vaccines can reduce the risk of people spreading the virus that causes COVID-19. If you are fully vaccinated, you can resume activities that you did before the pandemic.

COVID-19 vaccines teach our immune systems how to recognize and fight the virus that causes COVID-19. It typically takes 2 weeks after vaccination for the body to build protection (immunity) against the virus that causes COVID-19. That means it is possible a person could still get COVID-19 before or just after vaccination and then get sick because the vaccine did not have enough time to build protection.

COVID-19 vaccines are safe and effective. Vaccines cannot give you COVID-19. After COVID-19 vaccination, you may have some side effects. These are normal signs that your body is building protection. The side effects from COVID-19 vaccination, such as tiredness, headache, or chills, may affect your ability to do daily activities, but they should go away within a few days.

To receive the most protection, people should receive all recommended doses of a COVID-19 vaccine.


How Effective Are they

Prior to administering the vaccine, people are required to register ahead in most countries. See below the resource links for registering if you are in Nigeria, United Kingdom and the USA

Nigeria : https://nphcda.vaccination.gov.ng/

UK: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/coronavirus-covid-19/coronavirus-vaccination/book-coronavirus-vaccination/book-or-manage-a-1st-or-2nd-dose-of-the-coronavirus-covid-19-vaccination/

USA: https://www.vaccines.gov/

Please refer to the country specific information on registering for the covid 19 Vaccine in your country of residence.



COVID-19 vaccines do not create or cause variants of the virus that causes COVID-19. New variants of a virus happen because the virus that causes COVID-19 constantly changes through a natural ongoing process of mutation (change). Even before the COVID-19 vaccines, there were several variants of the virus. Looking ahead, variants are expected to continue to emerge as the virus continues to change.

COVID-19 vaccines can help prevent new variants from emerging. As it spreads, the virus has more opportunities to change. High vaccination coverage in a population reduces the spread of the virus and helps prevent new variants from emerging.


No. None of the authorized and recommended COVID-19 vaccines currently in development in the  contain the live virus that causes COVID-19. This means that a COVID-19 vaccine cannot make you sick with COVID-19.

If I have already had COVID-19 and recovered, do I still need to get vaccinated with a COVID-19 vaccine?

If I have already had COVID-19 and recovered, do I still need to get vaccinated with a COVID-19 vaccine?

Yes. Due to the severe health risks associated with COVID-19 and the fact that re-infection with COVID-19 is possible, a vaccine should be offered to you regardless of whether you already had a COVID-19 infection. At this time, experts do not know how long someone is protected from getting sick again after recovering from COVID-19. The immunity someone gains from having an infection, called natural immunity, varies from person to person. Some early evidence suggests natural immunity may not last very long.

Do COVID-19 vaccines contain microchips?

No. COVID-19 vaccines do not contain microchips. Vaccines are developed to fight against disease and are not administered to track your movement. Vaccines work by stimulating your immune system to produce antibodies, exactly like it would if you were exposed to the disease. After getting vaccinated, you develop immunity to that disease, without having to get the disease first.

Can receiving a COVID-19 vaccine cause you to be magnetic?

No. Receiving a COVID-19 vaccine will not make you magnetic, including at the site of vaccination which is usually your arm. COVID-19 vaccines do not contain ingredients that can produce an electromagnetic field at the site of your injection. All COVID-19 vaccines are free from metals.

Do any of the COVID-19 vaccines authorized for use shed or release any of their components?

No. Vaccine shedding is the term used to describe the release or discharge of any of the vaccine components in or outside of the body. Vaccine shedding can only occur when a vaccine contains a weakened version of the virus. 

Will a COVID-19 vaccine alter my DNA?

No. COVID-19 vaccines do not change or interact with your DNA in any way. Both mRNA and viral vector COVID-19 vaccines deliver instructions (genetic material) to our cells to start building protection against the virus that causes COVID-19. However, the material never enters the nucleus of the cell, which is where our DNA is kept.

Is it safe for me to get a COVID-19 vaccine if I would like to have a baby one day?

Yes. COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for everyone 12 years of age or older, including people who are trying to get pregnant now or might become pregnant in the future, as well as their partners.

Currently no evidence shows that any vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines, cause fertility problems (problems trying to get pregnant) in women or men.